Selasa, 20 Maret 2012

Developing the Teaching Content in Teaching Learning Process of Mathematics

            What do the teachers before teaching learning process of mathematics?. According to the curriculum as the references which come from the Government.  From the curriculum then the teacher  indicate the standard of competencies and basic competencies, next step the teachers choose the approach and methods to be used, having it filled then choose teaching materials that corresponds to the method used. For adopting a teacher must perform some set of activities that is like preparation, implementation and the last is reflection.
To develop the design of innovative teaching learning process of mathematics need:
A.          Preparation.
Preparation (of the given text material), which includes the process of critical interpretation (UNI). Preparation before lesson can be implementing syllabi, make lesson plan, choose the best teaching method according to the teaching material, and other. For the innovative teaching learning process the teacher must do many preparation like in the schema of teaching learning such as:
1.         Curriculum
For the first the teacher must construct the lesson plan based on the curriculum, the curriculum should cover
a.       Standard of competencies
We know that standard of competencies are minimal qualifications of learners ability to describe the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, and skills to be achieved in each grade or semester on a subject.
b.      Basic competencies
Basic competencies are the ability to master a number of learners in a particular subject as a reference indicator of competence in the preparation of a lesson.  Standard of competencies and basic competencies must be filled before starting the teaching learning activity. Because they are very important before lesson. we mean by taking a “principled” approach to teaching when starting with a subject matter focus: You design and implement your curriculum and instruction so that all of your students can construct powerful subject matter knowledge for ethical and political reasons using a reflective, collegial process guided by moral reasoning and an ethic of care (Vicki Kubler LaBoskey, 84).
c.       Indicator
The indicator construct after the teacher determine the standard of competencies and basic competencies. Standard of competencies, basic competencies, and indicators are part of syllabi. Syllabi construct by the teacher according the curriculum. Curriculum in Indonesia is school based curriculum. This curriculum is a formal document that coming from under government of Indonesia to province to distinct to school. Curriculum will be prepared on the basis of conditions each country. Innovative way of teaching in each country has different philosophy, ideology, paradigm, and theories. Mathematics has relation with religion but in the America many people doesn’t have religion so they are not agree if mathematics have relation with religion. About the theories included the method. About the notions consist of teaching material.
2.         Teaching approach or design
Teaching approach or design such as contextual learning, constructivist, realistic mathematics, and problem based learning, cooperative learning. The method in teaching learning must be various and flexible method. Especially in learning mathematics teacher should apply or connecting it to daily life or daily needs.  The teachers can use contextual approach because contextual learning is a method that closes to the life, it also a concept of study which help teacher correlating between taught materials with the real world situation of student and encourage student make relation between owned knowledge with implementation in their life as a member of family and society. The teachers have to make the teaching learning process of mathematics become enjoyable. There are many ways to build motivation, interesting and connected to daily life. By maximizing (optimizing) the use of some teaching aids and tools for demonstration it is expected to be able to help the process of student’s abstraction, which covers student’s difficulty in learning (Marsigit).
3.         The method
The method in teaching learning of mathematics included discovery, discussion, practical work, inquiry, small group discussion, individual, problem solving, and investigation. All good for as long as practiced for sometime math material suitable to be imparted.
4.         The teaching material
The teaching material must match with teaching method. Because there are a lot of material in mathematics that require discovery process. Mathematics is not collection of formula. The students will be bored if they memorized mathematical formula, were doing it , do the exercise. In fact, they not fully understand because the methods used discovery method was not suitable for use when learning helped students composing ideas or a concept in mathematics. They would be the longer remember the formula that they earn by putting together own than memorization. The teaching material must prepare before lesson, it contains of lesson plan, students’ worksheet, module, text book, handout, teaching aids. To give opportunity to the students construct theirs concept and definition can be realized by doing one of many ways like giving students’ worksheet. Students’ worksheet arranged as a good strategy of teaching as long as it’s not a collection of problems but it’s a place for students doing many activities discovering science or formula of mathematics. It’s better if arranged by the teachers because the teachers more understand the material and the students’ condition. There’s students’ worksheet that included in module and text book.
Needs to understand that design of teaching or teaching approach, teaching method, and teaching materials form a cycle. The teachers do this activity continuously every day during lesson.
B.           Implementation
Teaching Learning Process
Teaching is an active process in which one person shares information with others to provide them with the information to make behavioral changes, learning is the process of assimilating information with a resultant change in behavior so, teaching-learning process is a planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence (Teressa Banks, 1). 
To implement teaching learning process the teachers can do several activities such as: apperception, make small-group discussion. use various method, media, and teaching aids, make student's reflection, use cognitive scheme, make lesson plan, arrange student's worksheet, do assessment, implement syllabi, and etc.

C.          Reflection.
This process includes reviewing, reconstructing, reenacting, and critically analyzing one’s own teaching abilities and then grouping these reflected explanations into evidence of changes that need to be made to become a better teacher (UNI). Reflection consist of: teacher’s reflection, observer’s reflection, summaries, do the next cycle.
The series of activities teacher of preparation, implementation and last reflection form a cycle. Dive from the developing the design of innovative teaching learning process of mathematics which means the case developing teaching material to know the position or to be aware the position. So to develop the design of innovative teaching learning process of mathematics, the teacher must prepare it by learning text book.
            To develop teaching learning process of mathematics we can start from the curriculum that covers standard of competencies and basic competencies. The indicator determined by the teacher after standard of competencies and basic competencies are known then approaches and models of learning chosen by the teachers and teaching methods followed by the determination of appropriate teaching materials determine teachers last to implement the curriculum. The series of activity before lesson formed a cycle.
In developing the design of innovative teaching learning process of mathematics, the teachers do the preparation then implementation, and the last they do the reflection. The series of those activity formed a cycle.
Banks, Teressa. Teaching Learning Process. AdultLearning2007.pdf
LaBoskey, Vicki Kubler. Preparing to Teach Content. 85.
Marsigit. The Effort to Increase the Student’s Motivation in Mathematics Learning with Some Teaching Aids in Junior High School 5 Wates, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
UNI. Teacher's In-Depth Content Knowledge. summary.html

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